We have developed an algorithm to  reconstruct the central slice through the Newton sphere of a charged-particle distribution obtained from a standard velocity map imaging experiment (Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053104 (2009)).

The algorithm (POP) uses an Polar Onion Peeling methodology and is written in LabView.

The VI ( and required Look-up Table (LUT.txt) can be downloaded by clicking on the links.

There is also a MatLab version developed by Adi Natan and Adam Chatterley which can be found here


We are grateful for past and present funding from: ERC, EPSRC, Leverhulme Trust, Durham University

Dynamics of isolated polyanions

Isolated polyanions are inherently unstable because of the high Coulomb repulsion.  Time-resolved photoelectron imaging allows us to probe electron dynamics in these 

electrons at the water/air interface

The solvation dynamics of the hydrated electron at the water/air interface are probed using time- and phase-sensitive second harmonic generation spectroscopy 

Spectroscopy and Dynamics of bio-chromophores

The intrinsic dynamics of important chromophores are probed using photoelectron spectroscopies. Examples include: GFP, nucleotides, porphyrins and polyenes

Dynamics in water clusters

We use cryogenic cooling and molecular beam methods to generate solute/solvent clusters that allows us to probe the impact on excited states of incremental solvation 


 Our group studies the dynamics of ions in the gas phase, in clusters and at interfaces. In the gas phase, we are interested in understanding the intrinsic dynamics that follow immediately after photoexcitation. We probe how this alters by incrementally introducing an environment using clusters. Taking this to larger sizes, we consider the dynamics at interfaces with a focus on the solvated electron at the water/air interface.

nonadiabtic dynamics of anion formation

We have developed frequency-, angle-, and time-resolved photoelectron imaging (FAT-PI) to study the temporary anion resonances that lead to anion formation